Hampi – A Mythical & Majestic Landscape of Rocks, Ruins and Temples

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As a history buff interested in old civilizations, seeing ruins of old cities gives me an unparalleled high in imagination. To step back in time & to imagine a whole city above & around a meter high of ruins, to imagine who all walked that part of the earth, to imagine their daily lives is just pure adrenalin rush for me. I often complained about lack of good old ruins in India after my unbridled joy in experiencing the ruins of old Roman & Greek cities spread across the Mediterranean. Nothing prepared me for what I saw in Hampi, a great ghost town, a city abandoned after destruction, a beautiful ruin like no other in India.

The mythical, yet forlorn and stony landscape of Hampi entices and awes in the first look and before I knew it, I was head over heels in love with Hampi.  The landscape, dotted with granite rocks and boulders, some which are precariously perched on the edges of the rising hilly outposts, casts rusty orange hues with the rising sun, only to be interspersed with some lush greenery of coconut palm trees and paddy fields, swaying to the breeze from the mighty Tungabhadra river flowing alongside. Scattered on this earthy landscape are the 5 century old stunning ruins of Hampi, with innumerable ruins of temples, palaces, bazaars etc. It is an alluring place, an abandoned ghost town, standing still in time, waiting to be explored, and bewitching one to fall in love with it. The sight looked daunting, as I didn’t know where to start and how to finish, greedily at that, and not wanting to miss even one small piece of history anywhere on the 9 sqm ruins of Hampi.

Hampi, a UNESCO World heritage site, was the capital of the Vijaynagara empire and one of the richest & the largest cities in the world in the 16th century. Such were the riches of the people of the city, that the long bazaars in front of the temples sold precious stones much like grocery items! After the invasion by the Deccan sultanate in 1565, who repeatedly plundered Hampi, it lost its glory and was abandoned, never to be reoccupied again. Hampi has mythological connections. In ancient times, it was known as Pampakshetra after goddess Pampa who was Brahma’s daughter and later became Shiva’s wife. Hampi is also connected with Ramayana as Anegudi, which is across the river, is considered to be the birthplace of Hanuman. Hampi was also known as Kishkinda which is where Rama supposedly beheaded Bali to install Sugreeva on the throne and muster  support to free Sita from Lanka. Many events in Ramayana have been identified with specific locations around Hampi, like the cave where Sugreeva hid Sita’s jewels, which she dropped from the aerial chariot while being abducted and the rock where Sugreeva was crowned, amongst many other such markings.

Hampi was established by the Sangama brothers, Hukka & Bukka, in 1336 who were chieftains under the rule of Kampila, a small kingdom in the Tunghabhadra valley. The kingdom continued to expand under the rule of kings of the Sangama dynasty, Devaraya I and Devaraya II who expanded the kingdom covering all land south of the Krishna river. When the fortunes of the kingdom eroded with the repeated conflict with the Bahmani rulers, Narasimha Saluva took control in 1485 and established the second dynasty at Vijaynagara, called the Saluvas. In 1505, Vira Tuluva seized the kingdom the third dynasty of Tuluvas was established which produced the most famous kings, Krishnadevaraya and Achutaraya, under whom the Vijaynagara reached the peak of its culture, power and glory. It was in 1565, the capital fell to Deccan sultans after which the city was abandoned and the 4th Dynasty of Vijaynagara empire, the Aravidus, controlled the decaying empire from Penuconda in Andhra and eventually faded into history.

Hampi was a 2 night stop on my 2500 km road trip route from Mumbai – Bijapur – Badami – Aihole – Pattadakal – Chitradurg – Jog Falls – Konkan Coast – Goa – Ganpatipule – Mumbai. (Read more about the full trip here ->2500 kms of Road Trippin’ through North Karnataka & Goa). Hampi is spread over 9 sq miles and one needs to be prepared to walk a lot.  Though autos ply on the main road, one is tempted to walk and lose oneself in the ruins of Hampi. There are 3000 temples & points of interest in Hampi and it will take a year to see all of them!!  To cover the main attractions at leisure, one needs 3 days. To make the best of your time, follow this useful 3 day comprehensive walking tour:  http://hampi.in/3-day-hampi-itinerary

Hampi can be divided into four routes groups and covered in such fashion – route 1 covering the Sacred centre around the Virupaksha Temple, route 2 covering the royal centre with the royal palace ruins, route 3 covering the Vitthala temple, riverside ruins and Achutraya Temple vicinity, and route 4 covering the Zenana enclosure and the museum. The major points of interests in Hampi are:

Virupaksha Temple

The majestic Virupaksha temple dedicated to Shiva and his two consorts, sits right on the river bank. The temple complex was enhanced by Krishnadevaraya upon his coronation in 1510. The temple ceiling has exquisite paintings depicting the marriage of Shiva & Pampa and scenes from Ramayana. Also deep inside the temple complex, is a place where architecture meets optics and magically, without use of any mirrors, the shadow of the temple’s gopura forms an inverted shadow vs an upright shadow!

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Virupaksha Temple, Hampi

Hampi Bazaar and Nandi

Right outside the temple, is a 750 mtr long Hampi bazaar or market area, which are now in ruins thanks to the occupation and conversion to dwelling houses by locals, who are now relocated to outskirts of Hampi. At the end of the street, is a Majestic Nandi monolith and a mandapa, which has been converted into a Museum to display early photographs of the site from 20th century, right from the time of discovery of Hampi and before and after the restoration of the ruins.


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Hampi Bazaar and the Monolith nandi, hampi


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Monolith Nandi, Hampi

Matanga Hill

Best way to observe Hampi is to climb up the Matanga hill, to the right of Hampi bazaar, at sunrise and experience the awe-inspiring landscape of Hampi.

Hemkuta Hill and the Ganesha monoliths

Walking right from the Virupaksha temple, one arrives at the Hemkuta hill which is dotted with many small temples and shrines. The hill also serves as a sunset point and is one of the magical ways to experience Hampi. The two major points of interest here are the Kadalekalu Ganesha temple, which has a large monolithic statue of Ganesha, and the the Sasivekalu Ganesha Temple, which also has a large monolithic statue of Ganesha surrounded by majestic columns.

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The shrine atop Hemkuta Hill, Hampi


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The Sasivekalu Ganesha , Hampi

Krishna Temple & Bazaar

Walking southward from the Hemkuta hill, one finds the Krishna temple erected by Krishnadevaraya in 1515 to commemorate his victories & the adjacent scenic Krishna bazaar surrounded by hills and has a stepped water tank and small pavilion in the middle of it.

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Krishna Temple, Hampi
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Krishna Bazaar, Hampi

Lakshmi Narasimha, Badavilinga and Uddana Virabhadra temples

Further south, after crossing lush paddy fields, can be found two more stunning temples: The Lakshmi Narasimha temple which hosts a huge monolithic statue of Narasimha, the man-lion avatar of lord Vishnu. The adjacent Badavalinga shrine has a huge monolithic Shivling and continue to be used by locals. Further down south is the Uddana Virabhadra temple, used by locals and is dedicated to goddess Kali. Right outside is a ‘sati’ stone  dedicated to a general who contributed to the temple.


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Lakshminarasimha Temple, Hampi
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Badavalinga Temple, Hampi

Sisters’ Stone or Akka Tangi Gudda

These two massive natural stones, leaning against each other, lie at the entrance of the road that leads to the royal centre. Legend has it that two travelling sisters who were visiting Hampi, became jealous of the city & its glory and said some bad things about the city. The reigning deity was enraged and turned them into stones! Nevertheless, the massive stones are a wonderful sight to see.

The underground Shiv Temple

A little further from the Sister’s stone is the Underground Shiv temple complex. It was fully buried with time, but the excavation resulted it in being below the ground level.  It is a massive temple complex and partial remains of a gopura can be seen at the entrance.

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The underground shiv temple, Hampi

Royal Palace ruins & Hazara Rama Temple:

Exploring the sprawling royal place ruins will take better part of the day at Hampi. First on the route are the Noblemen’s Quarters, a walled palace complex called the Dannayaka Enclosure with walls and basement of palaces and has the Band Tower, a Mosque, a mint area, remains of the palace of Vira Harihara and Krishnadevaraya.  Further ahead is the majestic Hazara Rama Temple, which has intricate reliefs carved on the walls. Near to Hazara Rama Temple is the entry to the Royal Enclosure where the king used to conduct his daily duties. A lot of the structures in this complex were built in wood and hence were destroyed when the city was set on fire. It is here that one can find many interesting structures like a geometrically shaped stepped tank, the underground chamber for secret discussions, an audience hall which is in ruins and one of the majestic structures in the area called as the Mahanavami Dibba from where the king used to watch the parades.

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The Mahanavami Dibba, Hampi
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Remain of palace complex, Hampi

The Queen’s Bath & the Octagonal Bath

A short walk from the the royal enclosure is the Queens’ bath. It is a hexagonal shaped architectural beauty with influence of Islamic architecture and has a stepped pond inside for the queen to bathe. The Octagonal bath lies amidst the place complex ruins.

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The Queen’s bath, Hampi

The Zenana enclosure & Elephant Stables

The ruins of a huge walled compound are known as the Zenana enclosure or the harem. Inside the enclosure is the famous Lotus Mahal, which has distinct Indo-Islamic architecture and was naturally ventilated using air shafts.  There are many deep water tanks & a granary in this area. The impressive elephant stables are a long line of 11 chambers with distinct Indo- Islamic architectural style. It is believed that many monuments which had Indo- Islamic influence were left untouched by the raiding Deccan sultanate army.

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Zenana Enclosure, Hampi
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Elephant’s Stable, Hampi

Vitthala Temple complex & Stone Chariot

Walking left from the Hampi Bazaar, one comes to the riverside from where one can take a coracle boat ride which takes about a leisurely half hour to reach the Vitthala Temple complex.  There is the legendary cave of Sugreeva on the banks of Tungabhadra. At a distance, remains of the Tungabhadra bridge connecting Vijaynagara to Anegudi can be seen. The remains of the Vittala Bazaar are seen right outside the temple. Just after entering the temple, is the most famous attraction of Hampi – the monolithic Stone Chariot. Two elephants are seen pulling the chariot, though originally horses were there. Facing the stone chariot is the Maha Mantapa with unique monolithic carved granite pillars called as the musical pillars which emit musical notes of different instruments when tapped.  This majestic temple is an architectural beauty with many intricate reliefs carved on the temple walls, showcasing the life in Hampi in the 16th century.

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Catching a cool shade on a coracle boat, Hampi
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The Vittala Temple, Hampi
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Stone Chariot, Vittala Temple, Hampi

Achyutaraya’s Temple complex & Kings’ balance

Walking away from the Vitthala temple, back towards Hampi, one finds the King’s balance with inscriptions of Ramayana. The King used the balance to weigh himself and give away his weight’s equal in gold and precious stones to temple Brahmins. Further ahead is the Achyutaraya’s temple dedicated to the lord Tiruvengalanatha along with the remains of the bazaar.

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The King’s balance, Hampi

Kodandarama temple complex

Coming back to the riverside starting point for the coracle boat ride and the one finds the Kodandarama temple complex dedicated to Rama, Lakshaman, Sita & Hanuman. Along the riverside, there are many reliefs carved on the rocks.


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Hampi at Sunrise

I would have missed many other smaller attractions due to paucity of time, but was glad to have covered most it. Hampi left me feeling greedy. It drew me in and captured my imagination. I began to imagine & visualise the life in glorious Hampi in 16th century, of the riches of the bazaars and of the grandeur of the palaces, dreamily wishing to be borne back then. I wanted more and more of Hampi, not wanting to go back, only to be dreamily consumed by imagination and love for the mythical and majestic landscape that is Hampi.


How to reach:

The nearest railhead is at Hospet which is 16kms away.

The nearest airport is at Hubli which is 160kms away.


Where to Stay:

Stay across the river from Hampi at Virupapur Gaddi in one of the many guesthouses frequented by foreigners. This side has a bustling nightlife and shops for buying in clothes & other knick knacks. We stayed at Mowgli Guesthouse which was nice & clean with great views of paddy fields behind. It was a short 10 min walk to the ferry point to cross the river to Hampi ruins.


Catch the sunrise from the Matanga hill and the sunset from the sunset point on the Hemkuta Hill. Hampi is an open air museum and can get really hot during the day. Carry shades, cap & bottle of water and something to eat if you plan to walk the whole day as you will not find any food amongst the ruins.

The three Chalukyan Dynasty gems – Badami, Aihole & Pattadakal

Badami, Aihole & Pattadakal were important capitals and seats of power for the Chalukyan dynasty and are important in understanding the history of Deccan and temple architecture in India. Badami & Pattadakal have been designated as UNESCO world Heritage sites whereas Aihole is on the pending list for approval. Together these three Chalukyan gems form the cradle of temple architecture as the architecture style of the these heritage sites defined the Hindu temples’ architectural style for centuries to come.

The Chalukyas ruled over large parts of Deccan from the 6th to the 12th century.  Pulakesin-I founded the dynasty in Badami and hence they are known as the early Chalukyas or the Badami Chalukyas. Most famous of all the Chalukyas was Vikramaditya II whose military campaigns against the Pallavas in south have been inscribed on a pillar at Pattadakal.

The temples at Badami, Aihole and Pattadakal are remarkable and since they were located in Deccan, they have a mix of styles and architectural techniques borrowed from the Dravida style of temple architecture from south & the Nagara style architecture of the north.

These heritage sites were a stop on my 2500kms road-trip route from Mumbai – Bijapur – Badami – Aihole – Pattadakal – Chitradurg – Jog Falls – Konkan Coast – Goa – Ganpatipule – Mumbai. Ideal base to cover the three gems is Badami as both Aihole & Pattadakal are an hour’s drive away and ideally it will require a full day at each place to do equal justice. (Read more about the full trip here ->2500 kms of Road Trippin’ through North Karnataka & Goa).


Badami caves complex of 4 main caves and other smaller caves is a UNESCO world heritage site, built in 6th century by the Chalukyas. The caves are considered a prime example of rock-cut architecture which transformed the Indian temple architecture in centuries to come. The caves are dedicated to Shiv & Vishnu. Cave 4 has some Buddhist & Jain reliefs as well.

Badami caves are on the hills on the south side of Agastya Lake named after one of the saptarishis, Agastya. On the eastern corner of this lake, is the Bhutanatha group of temples dedicated to local deity – Bhutanath. The temple parts were constructed over 4 centuries – 7th – 11th – and hence have architectural inspiration from different periods.

On the north side of the lake, is a sandstone hill on top of which is located the Badami fort. The path to the top is behind the Badami Archaeological Museum at the base of the cliff. The path is well laid with stairs and once can walk up to the top quite comfortably to catch stunning views of the city.  One finds two open mandapas on the way to the top where there is a Lower Shivalaya temple & one Upper Shivalaya temple. Remnants of the fort can also be seen enroute like the cicrcular outlooks, granaries and a ruined fort complex.

There is a Banashankari temple located 5kms away on road to Gadag.  Dedicated to the house goddess Banashankari, it was built by the Chalukyas in the 7th century. It is still in use today & old spectacular lamp towers are found adjacent to the temple alongside the huge water tank inside the temple complex.


Entrance to Badami cave
Relief in cave 4, Badami
Reliefs in Badami Caves
Reliefs in Badami Caves
Bhutanatha temple, Badami
temple Ruins atop the hill with the Badami fort, Badami
Upper Shivalaya on top of the hill housing Badami Fort


Best way to start the tour of Aihole is to climb up the Meguti Hill and catch the sunrise over Aihole from there. Though it looks quite imposing from a distance, the paved road for a taxi goes quite far up the hill, leaving you with hardly 100 odd steps to climb to reach the top.

At the crest of the Meguti hill, is a two-storeyed Buddhist temple with tall columns. A few more steps, and you reach the hill top which has a majestic Jain Temple of 7th century & fort ruins on the sides. From here you can see the city of Aihole.

The majestic semi-circular temple Durga Temple complex is the most famous attraction of Aihole. Mistakenly thought to be dedicated to a goddess, the origins of its name is from the word “Durg’ or fortified outlook that covered its roof once upon a time.

Another attraction in the Durga Temple complex is the Lad Khan temple, originally a shiv temple but later got its name from a Muslim general who occupied it and made his home there. There are many other small temples that dot this main complex and can be enjoyed at leisure.

Walking out of the Durga Temple complex and towards Meguti hill, there are ruins of many well preserved temple complexes. There are Ambergudi, Chikigudi & Huchimalligudi temples nearby which are well preserved and can be enjoyed at leisure.

One of the most attractive temples is the Ravanaphadi temple, a huge free-standing rock cut temple from early Chalukyan period. Huge reliefs of Shiva & Vishnu adorn the temple.

One needs a day and a half to cover the many other monuments of Aihole. It is very saddening to see many temples in disrepair as the village settlements are encroaching the temple ruins. Stones from the temples have been used by villagers to build their houses. Lot of work by ASI has happened to relocate the village settlements away from the ruins, but a lot of work till needs to be done.

Steps to top of Meguti Hill, Aihole
Buddhist Temple, Meguti hill, Aihole.


Durga temple, Aihole
Lad Khan temple, Aihole
Ravanaphadi temple, Aihole
Inside Ravanaphadi temple, Aihole



The best way to enjoy Pattadakal is to catch the sunrise over the monuments. Pattadakal is a well maintained, massive UNESCO world heritage temple complex consisting of 8 temples, all dedicated to Shiva. The two largest & most impressive ones are the Virupaksha temple & it’s matching smaller version, the Mallikarjuna Temple, funded by the sister Queens, Queen Lokmahadevi & Queen Trailokamahadevi respectively to commemorate their husband’s, Vikramadtya II’s, successful military campaigns against the Pallava dynasty.

In the same complex are smaller temples: Kadasiddeshwara temple, Jambulinga temple, Galagnatha temple, Sangameshwara temple and Kashivishwanatha temple amongst 100s of smaller shivlings. There is a Papanatha temple which is a short walk away from this main temple complex.




Mallikarjuna Temple, Pattadakal


Virupaksha temple , Pattadakal
Pattadakal Temple Complex



Where to Stay:  The best place to stay in Badami is at Clark’s inn which is a 5 min walking distance from the caves. The best place to stay is at Badami to cover both Aihole & Pattadkal, both of which are barely an hour’s drive away.

Tip: Beat the crowd and start early. In winters, the monuments open at 6 am. Catch the sunset at Badami from Bhutanath temple or climb up the hilltop to the North fort/ Upper Shivalaya temple to get panoramic view of the city against the setting sun. Catch the sunrise at Pattadkal and from Meguti Hill at Aihole.

A Day in Bijapur

Bijapur or Vijayanagara or the City of Victory, is a typical small Indian city but is loaded with history. It was capital of the Chalukyas in 11th -12th century and later of the Bahmani Sultanate king of Gulbarga. Most of the well known monuments of the city were built by the Adil Shah dynasty, most notable being the Gol Gumbaaz.

Bijapur was a night’s stop on our 2500kms road-trip route from Mumbai – Bijapur – Badami – Aihole- Pattadkal – Chitradurg – Jog Falls– Konkan Coast – Goa – Ganpatipule – Mumbai. ( To read about the full road trip , click here -> 2500 Kms road trip through North Karnataka & Goa ). We had just one day to cover the city of Bijapur. One ideally needs one and half days to cover the city at leisure, but with proper planning and setting ourselves a time limit of 1 hour at each monument, we were able to cover most of the city in one day with lot of time left on our hands to relax.

We arrived in Bijapur after a 12hr drive from Mumbai covering almost 500kms. We started out at 6am in the morning & breezed down the Mumbai – Pune Highway, stopping at good old McD’s for breakfast. We got on to NH-9 after Pune, heading straight to Sholapur, stopped on the way at Kamat’s for lunch & then took the NH-13 to Bijapur. The roads were good except the last patch of NH-13 which is an unlit one lane state highway and hence a pain to drive what with blinding oncoming headlights post sunset.

We hit the city early next day at 8 am and reached Gol Gumbaaz. If you are an early riser, the gates open at 6am at which time there are no crowds and you will have the entire place to yourself. We kicked ourselves for not getting there earlier when we saw hordes of school children who arrived by busloads on their annual school trip. It was quite painful to get even one photograph without it being photobombed with kids from all sides.

Gol Gumbaaz is the the mausoleum of Muhammad Adil Shah known for its amazing dimensions – It is the 2nd highest dome in the world after the Vatican and has one of the biggest single chamber spaces in the world. The inside of the dome has unique acoustic features and acts as a whispering gallery as even a slight murmur in one corner can be heard from across the chamber. We spent a good three hours at the monument and climbed to the rooftop to get some amazing views of both interior of the tomb and the outer landscape of the city.

Next stop was Ibrahim Rauza, which is also known as the Taj Mahal of the Deccan for having purportedly inspired the design of the Taj Mahal in years to come. It was built by Ibrahim Adil Shah II in mid 17th century and has his tomb and a mosque on a common raised terrace surrounded by a huge garden.

Jod Gumbad’s twin domed tombs were built in memory of Khan Muhammad and Abdul Razzaq Qadiri. This is in middle of a village and is being used as a mosque, so I wasn’t able to go inside.

On can easily skip the Taj Bawri. Once a beautiful step well, it is reduced to a garbage disposal water body with some local villagers washing clothes on the other side. An eyesore!

Bara Khaman is the unfinished mausoleum of Ali Roza II, meant for him & his wives. Supposedly the work was stopped as it could have overshadowed the brilliance of the Gol Gumbaaz.

From there on we went to Jami Masjid which is the largest mosque in Deccan/ south India built by Adil Shah 1 in 16th century. Not as much a sight as Taj-ul-Majid at Bhopal, but nonetheless is an important monument in the landscape of Bijapur.

Wander to the Uppali Burj, a 16th century watch tower built by Hyder Khan to strengthen the city’s defences.  There is also Malik-e-Maidan, which is a majestic site with a 55T canon, the largest medieval cannon in the world. For those who are religiously inclined, there is also a huge Shiva temple called Shivgiri, which is on the outskirts of the city.

 A quick immersion into the 4 century old city, replete with architectural attractions was well worth it. Bijapur is an important town to understand the history of India and should be stop in every history lover’s explorations through Karnataka.


Where to Stay: Hotel Basava residency is a decent option and is on the main road from where you can cover all attractions.

Tips:  Get to the sites as early as possible. In winter time, sites open as early as 6am. Check the timings and get in early. While all attractions are at walkable distance from each other, in case you do need to take a rickshaw, negotiate hard. Some autowallahs do fleece outstationers.

Gol Gumbaaz, Bijapur
View from the terrace, inside the Gol Gumbaaz, Bijapur
Ibrahim Rauza- Bijapur
Inside the Ibrahim Rauza, Bijapur
Jami Masjid, Bijapur
Bara Khaman, Bijapur

2500 kms of Road Trippin’ through North Karnataka & Goa

Road Trippin’ through Mumbai – Bijapur – Badami – Aihole- Pattadkal – Chitradurga – Jog Falls– Konkan Coast – Goa – Ganpatipule – Mumbai

The idea for this 2500 kms of history, nature & leisure roadtrip originated when my husband and I decided to do something exciting around the already planned  new year get-together at Goa with friends. We embarked upon a road trip through north Karnataka to see some of the major historic UNESCO heritage sites of the Chalukya & Vijaynagar empire at Badami, Aihole, Pattadkal & Hampi and then zipped down to Goa Continue reading “2500 kms of Road Trippin’ through North Karnataka & Goa”